A to B
AAAS: (Pronounced "Triple A-S") American Association for the Advancement of Science. Publishes Science and EurekAlert.
AACI: Association of American Cancer Institutes. Composed of leaders of cancer institutes and centers that meet and discuss progress and mutual problems to foster collaboration for control of cancer through research, education and service.
AACR: American American Association of Cancer Research. Facilitates communication and dissemination of knowledge among scientists and others dedicated to the cancer problem through presentations and discussions of new and improved observations in the field. AACR also fosters research in cancer and related biomedical sciences and promotes public education, science education and training to advance the understanding of cancer etiology, prevention, diagnosis and treatment worldwide. Publishes the journal Cancer Research.
AAMC: (Pronounced "Double A-M-C") Association of American Medical Colleges.
ACCC: (Pronounced "A-triple C") Association of Community Cancer Centers. Non-NCI-affiliated cancer accreditated network.
ACOA: American College of Oncology Administrators. Publishes Journal of Oncology Management.
ACOG: American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists.
ACoSOG: American College of Surgeons Oncology Group. A cooperative group sponsored by the whose primary goal is to evaluate surgical therapies in the management of patients with malignant solid tumors.
ACP: American College of Physicians. National medical society for internal medicine. Publ 2237 ishes Annals of Internal Medicine.
ACR: American College of Radiology, an accreditation for radiologic equipment, personnel and facilities.
ACRO: American College of Radiation Oncology.
ACS: American Cancer Society. The largest private source of cancer research funds in the U.S. Established in 1913, ACS disseminates knowledge concerning the symptoms, treatment and prevention of cancer; investigates conditions under which cancer is found; and compiles statistics related to cancer incidence and mortality. Publishes the journal Cancer.
ACS: American College of Surgeons. A scientific and educational association of surgeons that was founded in 1913 to improve the quality of care for the surgical patient by setting high standards for surgical education and practice.
AHCPR (Pronounced,"ACK-PAR") Agency for Health Care Policy & Research.
AJCC: American Joint Committee on Cancer. Formed in 1959 for the purpose of developing a system of clinical staging for cancer that is acceptable to the American medical profession.
ALCASE: Alliance for Lung Cancer Advocacy, Support and Education. A nonprofit organization based in Vancouver, Washington, founded to improve the quality of lives of lung cancer patients through raising awareness of issues concerning its diagnosis and treatment; psychosocial support; and providing education.
Alternative Therapies: Treatments not approved by the FDA, usually without scientific evidence of effectiveness.
AMA: American Medical Association. The AMA is a voluntary membership organization of physicians that sets standards for the profession of medicine, and which is highly focused on medical education. Publishes JAMA, the Journal of the American Medical Association.
Ambulatory Care: Medical services provided on an outpatient basis.
APHA: The American Public Health Association. The oldest and largest organization of public health professionals in the world, representing more than 50,000 members from more than 50 occupations of public health. APHA brings together researchers, health service providers, administrators, teachers, and other health workers in a unique, multidisciplinary environment of professional exchange, study, and action. Publishes the American Journal of Public Health.
ASCO: American Society of Clinical Oncology promotes and fosters the exchange and diffusion of information and ideas relating to human cancers, including cancer biology, diagnosis, staging, treatment and psychosocial impact. ASCO provides further training of persons in clinical research and patient care and encourages communication between cancer specialties to facilitate the delivery of health care. Publishes the Journal of Clinical Oncology.
ASH: American Society of Hematologists.
ASCT: Autologous Stem Cell Transplant: a treatment strategy involving high doses of chemotherapy after which a patientís stem cells (the blood cells which form all other blood cells) are returned in order to rebuild bone marrow and the immune system.
ASSIST: A 10-year national demonstration project testing tobacco use interventions to determine what mix of education, community involvement, media messages, smoking cessation help, and policy change will best keep children and other high-risk populations.
BCPT: Breast Cancer Prevention Trial. Randomized clinical trial testing the effectiveness of tamoxifen for preventing breast cancer.
BSA: Board of Scientific Advisors: Appraises and makes recommendations for the extramural programs. Includes members of the lay community in addition to leading scientists.
BSC: Board of Scientific Counselors. Reviews and advises on intramural research, and replaced the four Boards previously addressing activities of each of the four program divisions. Includes members of the lay community in addition to leading scientists.
C to E
CALGB: Cancer and Leukemia Group B (see "Cooperative Group").
Cancer Center: National Cancer Institute-designated center. Formerly "basic cancer center."
Capitation: A method of reimbursement under certain managed care plans whereby providers receive a fixed fee per person from a defined population, regardless of the amount of services provided to the enrolled members.
CCSG: Cancer Center Support Grant. NCI grant to help fund designated centersí infrastructure of administration and core facilities.
CCC: Comprehensive Cancer Center, as designated by the National Cancer Institute. As of 1/97 there are 26 Comprehensive centers. To attain recognition from NCI as a CCC, an institution must pass rigorous review. Under the guidelines established in 1990 (which are being revised this year), the eight criteria for "comprehensiveness" include the requirement that a center have a strong core of basic laboratory research in several scientific fields; a strong program of clinical research; and an ability to transfer research findings into clinical practice to name some.
CCG: Childrenís Cancer Group (see "Cooperative Group")
CCOPS: (Pronounced "C-cops") The Community Clinical Oncology Program. A mechanism that links community cancer specialists and primary care physicians with clinical Cooperative Groups and Cancer Centers to conduct cancer treatment, prevention, and control clinical trials. There are 52 CCOPs in 30 states, with 300 participating hospitals.
CDC: Centers for Disease Control & Prevention, headquartered in Atlanta.
Chemoprevention: The use of drugs to prevent cancer (e.g., tamoxifen.)
CIS: Cancer Information Service, a program of the NCI started by trained information specialists, is a nationwide telephone service for cancer patients and their families, the public, and health care professionals. Nineteen (19) regional CIS offices serve specific geographic areas and have information about cancer-related services and resources in their region. The toll-free number is (800) 4-CANCER (422-6237).
Clinical Cancer Center: National Cancer Institute-designated center which has a strong program in clinical cancer care.
Clinical Research Studies (see "Clinical Trials")
Clinical Trials (also referred to as "protocols" or "clinical research studies") "The systematic investigation of the effects of materials or methods, according to a formal study plan and generally in a human population with a particular disease or class of diseases. In cancer research, a clinical trial generally refers to the evaluation of treatment methods, such as surgery, drugs, or radiation techniques, although methods of prevention, detection, or diagnosis also may be the subject of such studies."
Clinical Pathways: A defined set of diagnostic tests, treatments, and other interventions (including palliative care) for different types and stages of disease.
COG: Childrenís Oncology Group (see "Cooperative Group").
Complementary Therapies: (see "Alternative Therapies")
Cooperative Group (sometimes called, "Clinical Trials Cooperative Groups") A network of oncologists, participating in clinical trials in collaboration with with NCI designated center which promote and support clinical trials for new cancer treat-ments, as well as for prevention, early detection and quality of life and rehabilitation issues. Currently 1,400 institutions and 9,000 investigators that contribute patients to group-conducted clinical trials. Examples include COG, ECOG, SWOG, POG, and RTOG.
Core Grant: (See "CCSG: Cancer Center Support Grant").
CPEN (pronounced, "C-Pen"): Cancer Patient Educators Network of the National Cancer Institute-designated cancer centers.
CRADA: Cooperative Research and Development Agreement. Federal government and private sector alliance to develop new therapies (e.g., Taxol).
CTEP: Cancer Treatment Evaluation Program. Branch of NCI.
CTO: Clinical Trials Office. The department within cancer centers that oversees the administration of clinical trial, or "clinical research studies."
DHHS: The Department of Health and Human Services is the United States government's principal agency for protecting the health of Americans and providing essential human services, particularly to underserved groups. It includes: the National Institutes of Health, Food & Drug Administration, Centers for Disease Control & Prevention, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Indian Health Service, Health Resources and Services Administration, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Agency for Health Care Policy and Research (AHCPR), Health Care Financing Administration (which administers the Medicare and Medicaid programs), Administration for Children and Families, and the Administration on Aging. 2239
DRGs: Disease Related Groups. A patient classification system though which the government reimburses hospitals on a fixed fee basis for care provided for Medicare beneficiaries.
DOD: Department of Defense. Responsible for recent funding of breast cancer research grants.
EAB: Extramural Advisory Board. Group within the NCI which meets regularly to advise on policy and process and serves as information conduits back to the staffs they represent.
ECOG: Eastern Clinical Oncology Group (see "Cooperative Group").
EORTC: European Organization for Research on the Treatment for Cancer (see "Cooperative Group").
ERT: Estrogen Replacement Therapy.
F to M
FAHCT: The Foundation for the Accreditation of Hematopoietic Cell Therapy has initiated its voluntary comprehensive standard-setting, inspection, and accreditation program that encompasses all phases of hematopoietic collection, processing and transplant. It is a nonprofit corporation developed by the International Society of Hematotherapy and Graft Engineering (ISHAGE) and the American Society of Blood and Marrow Transplantation (ASBMT) for the purposes of self-assessment and accreditation in the field of hematopoietic cell therapy.
FACP: Fellow, American College of Physicians. A society of internal medicine practitioners.
FACS: Fellow, American College of Surgeons. Reflects education and training, professional qualifications, surgical competence, and ethical conduct consistent with standards established by the College.
FDA: Food and Drug Administration. Government agency which reviews and approves or does not approve therapies for use by humans.
FFS: Fee for Service. A payment arrangement, under which patients pay doctors, hospitals and others separately for each service provided.
FDA: Food and Drug Administration. The government agency that reviews new therapies for use.
FOCR: Friends of Cancer Research. A 501(c)3 organization headquartered in Washington, DC, established for one-to-two years to commemorate the 25th anniversary of the National Cancer Act for the primary purpose of promoting the importance of cancer research. Composed of a variety of cancer groups, including PAN, NCCR, ASCO, and NCCS, as well as members of the National Cancer Advisory Board.
GIA: Group on Institutional Advancement. An organization for public affairs, development and administrative officers.
GOG: Gynecologic Oncology Group (see "Cooperative Group").
HMO: Health Maintenance Organization. A prepaid health insurance plan through which subscribers receive medical services from affliated providers for a preset annual fee.
IAB: Intermural Advisory Board. Group within the NCI which meets regularly to advise on policy and process and serves as information conduits to the staffs they represent.
IARC: International Agency for Research on Cancer, part of the World Health Organization which compiles incidence datat from existing-population based registries from around the world.
ICIC: International Cancer Information Center. A division of the National Cancer Institute which provides an array of cancer information for scientists, health professionals and the public. Oversees PDQ Search Service.
IND: Investigational New Drug: More than 200 investigational agents or treatment strategies, ranging from new chemotherapy drugs and cancer vaccines to agents that prevent tumor blood vessel development, through NCI.
Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study (see "Cooperative Group").
IRB: Internal Review Board. The committee within cancer centers which reviews new clinical trials.
IRP: Intramural Research Program. Includes the Divisions of Basic Sciences, Clinical Sciences, and Epidemiology and genetics and provides a unique setting for a comprehensive effort to understand and diminish cancer. It has served as a training locus for cancer researchers in all fields.
ISPO: International Society of Preventive Oncology. ISPO is the forum of an international membership committed to the study of interactive etiologic factors in cancer development and their impact on prevention, detection, and management of neoplastic diseases. Publishes CDP (Cancer Detection & Prevention) Journal.
JCAHO: Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations. Evaluates and accredits more than 18,000 health care organizations in the United States, including hospitals, health care networks and health care organizations that provide home care, long term care, behavioral health care, laboratory, and ambulatory care services. Is the nation's oldest and largest standards-setting and accrediting body in health care.
JNCI:Journal of the National Cancer Institute, published by the National Cancer Institute.
Susan G. Komen Foundation: Dallas-based organization dedicated to funding research on breast cancer which hosts national Race for the Cureô events.
Look-Alike Organizations: Organizations with names similar to respected organizations which solicit donations for the public ostensibly for research, education or treatment, but which have higher-than-recommended fund-raising costs or questionable programs.
LOWAC: League of Women Against Cancer. Publishes the journal Women and Cancer.
Managed care: A supervised system of financing and providing health care services for a defined population group. Currently, HMOs are the most popular forms of managed care.
MECC: Middle East Cancer Consortium.
Medicaid: A joint federal/state program which provides medical services for low-income patients. Medicaid also pays for nursing home services for low-income elderly persons.
Medicare: A federally-funded national health insurance program for persons 65 and older, as well as for all disabled persons, regardless of income.
Multidisciplinary Clinics: An approach to better diagnosing and treatment patients by reviewing cases through a multidisciplinary team, usually composed of medical oncologists, radiation therapists and surgical oncologists, in addition to other specialists (such as respiratory therapists, social workers, and oncology nurses).
N to Z
NABCO: National Alliance of Breast Cancer Organizations.
NASW: National Association of Science Writers.
National Wilmís Tumor Study Group (see "Cooperative Group").
NCAB: National Cancer Advisory Board. An 18-member board appointed by the President to advise, assist, consult with, and make recommendations to the Secretary of the Department of Health and Human Services and the NCI director with respect to activities carried out by and through the Institute.
NCCC: National Cervical Cancer Coalition. Focuses on cervical cancer issues such as cervical cancer screening programs, new technology, research and treatment. A primary focus of NCCC is on assisting women and their family members who may be battling cervical cancer disease.
NCCF: National Childhood Cancer Foundation: An advocacy group.
NCCN: National Comprehensive Cancer Network. A network of 15 cancer research and treatment centers organized in 1995 with the goal of developing and instituting standards and guidelines to ensure high-quality, cost-effective care.
NCCR: National Coalition for Cancer Research. An organization composed of more than 20 national lay and professional groups dedicated to strengthening the National Cancer Program through public education and communication about the value of cancer research, treatment and prevention.
NCCS: National Coalition for Cancer Survivorship. A nonprofit organization that addresses the needs and interests of people with cancer, their families, health care professionals, and cancer organizations. The group's mission is to provide information and referral resources on the physiological, psychological, economic and social impacts of cancer.
NCCTG: North Central Cancer Treatment Group (see "Cooperative Group").
NCI: National Cancer Institute. The branch of the National Institutes of Health that conducts and supports basic and applied cancer research in early detection, diagnosis, prevention, treatment and rehabilitation.
NIHGR: National Human Genome Research Institute. The branch of the National Institutes of Health that funds research in chromosome mapping, DNA sequencing, database development, technology development for genome research, and studies of the ethical, legal, and social implications of genetics research. Heads the Human Genome Project (HGP), an international research effort to characterize the genomes of human and selected model organisms through complete mapping and sequencing of their DNA, to develop technologies for genomic analysis, to examine the ethical, legal, and social implications of human genetics research, and 5B4 to train scientists who will be able to utilize the tools and resources developed through the HGP to pursue biological studies that will improve human health.
NIH: National Institutes of Health. One of the world's foremost biomedical research centers, and the federal focal point for biomedical research in the U.S., including cancer: the National Cancer Institute.
NMDP: National Marrow Donor Program. A national registry of marrow typing used in bone marrow transplantation.
NSABP: National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project. A cooperative group which conducts multiple clinical trials in the prevention and therapies of breast and colorectal cancer at 200 sites across the country (see "Cooperative Group").
OCC: Office of Cancer Communications. Office of National Cancer Institute that handles public inquiries and oversees the Cancer Information Service.
ODAC: Oncology Drugs Advisory Committee. An advisory body which makes recommendations to the FDA on the approval or nonapproval of drugs.
ONS: Oncology Nursing Society.
Outcomes Management: Evaluations of the relative success and cost efficiency of various health care providers and medical products and services.
PAN: Public Affairs Network of the National Cancer Institute-designated cancer centers.
PCPT: Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial sponsored by SWOG and NCI. A clinical trial involving 18,000 healthy men over 55. Lasting 10 years, it will determine 5B4 if the drug, finasteride, can prevent prostate cancer.
PDQ: Physicianís Data Query. NCI-sponsored search service accessible by phone of computer-based cancer and clinical trials information.
Peer Review: The mechanism of grant or publication approval in which a panel of scientific experts, primarily from outside the government who are active and productive researchers in the biomedical sciences, evaluates its scientific merit.
PIVOT: Prostatectomy Intervention Versus Observation Trial. Assesses patient outcomes with radical prostatectomy or "watchful waiting" to try to determine who needs aggressive chemotherapy.
PO1: A multicomponent program projects averaging $1.2 million per year that may have more than a dozen separate research elements.
P20: A planning grant for the preparation of a P30 grant.
P30: (See "CCSG: Cancer Center Support Grant").
PLCO: Prostate, Lung, Colon, Ovarian Trial. National study to determine the efficacy of prostate cancer screening and answer other screening questions. The 16-year study will ultimately enroll 74,000 men and 74,000 women.
POG: Pediatric Oncology Group (see "Cooperative Group").
POS: Publication Ordering Service of the Cancer Information Service.
PPO: Preferred Provider Organization. A form of health plan whereby providers, such as physicians and hospitals, offer volume discounts to group members.
PRG: Progress Review Group. Established by the National Can 81B cer Institute, these groups help the NCI plan and sharpen the focus of its large, site-specific research programs. Overall goal is to develop a national plan consisting of a description of current ongoing scientific activities and investigations and a description of additional, unaddressed scientific opportunities. First two focus on breast and prostate cancers.
PCP: Presidentís Cancer Panel. A three-member, congressionally-mandated panel created to apprise the president of cancer-related issues. Holds periodic public hearings and submits an annual progress report directly to the president.
Protocols (see Clinical Trials).
PSA: Prostate Specific Antigen. Prognostic marker for diagnosing prostate cancer.
RO1: Individual research grant.
RO3: Small grants averaging less than $53,000 per year.
RPG: Research Project Grant. The main pool of funds expended by the NCI on extramural research. These dollars represent funds competitively awarded through peer review to support dedicated cancer investigators.
RTOG: Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (see "Cooperative Group").
SEER: Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results. A program of the National Cancer Institute which, through 11 geographically-disperse, demographically-representative registries, collects a sample of cancer incidence and mortality. It is the most authoritative source of information on cancer incidence, survival, and mortality in the U.S. and a model for cancer registries throughout the world. More than 1.7 million cancer cases are in the database, and approximately 150,000 new cancers are registered annually.
Spinoffs: Discoveries into the causes or treatments of other diseases through cancer research (example, AZT for the treatment of AIDS).
SPOREs: Specialized Programs of Research Excellence. Focuses exclusively on translational research.
SWOG: Southwestern Oncology Group. (See "Cooperative Group").
UICC: Union Internationale Contre le Cancer (International Union Against Cancer).
UNAS: United Network for Organ Sharing.